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On a national level it is forecasted that the volume of electricity generated in the high-efficiency CHP process will also considerably increase.
The possibility of using an NPP as a source of not only electricity but also heat strongly depends on both thermal power demand and heat transmission capabilities.
Usually existing plants only supply heat to the nearest towns, typically inhabited by the NPP’s own personnel, and the heating outputs are low, no more than ten-twenty megawatts.
An example of a nuclear power plant with partial heat recovery is a Swiss Beznau Nuclear Power Plant which supplies peak output of 80 MW to a relatively well developed heating system (total length around 130 km).
The largest alterations should be expected for heat outputs exceeding 1800 MW.
In such a case it might prove reasonable to use two or three separate shafts with separate generators (Fig. Currently there are no nuclear plants which would supply major amounts of heat to external consumers.
In classic CHP systems based on organic fuels backpressure, extraction-backpressure or extraction-condensing turbines are used.
In a nuclear power plant the most favourable solution is an extraction-backpressure turbine with steam extractions which may be used to supply district heating energy during a heating season, and which may also continuously provide process heat flow (steam).
The key advantage of combined heat and power generation is reduced consumption of primary energy carriers, and therefore also reduction of atmospheric emissions.Yet due to different parameters of generated steam, the structure is considerably different.Polish power stations have superheated steam turbines (540°C, 18 MPa), while the turbines of the Swiss nuclear plant are supplied with dry saturated steam (5.5 MPa).Yet in the case of using an NPP as a source of heat, this demand could be reduced.In the case of a power unit from Beznau NPP the cooling water flow is some 72 thousand Mg/h, while in a power unit of Opole Power Station it is some 40 thousand Mg/h.